PRESPECTIVE OF THEORY OF DIDACTICAL SITUATION TOWARD THE LEARNING OBSTACLE IN LEARNING MATHEMATICS

REFI ELFIRA YULIANI

Abstract


The learning process of mathematics does not always achieved the expected goals.
Various obstacles and difficulties was always coloring process. This is due to
various factors that become obstacles in the learning process. Diversity intellectual
ability of students in math vary greatly. The attitude and behavior of students vary,
as well as interest and emotions. Methods and designed all aspects of teachers,
teaching materials, learning resources, media and classroom situations can help give
a boost or provide learning obstacle to the students. The learning obstacles are not
only experienced by students who are capable below average, but can also be
experienced by students at all levels of ability. Brousseau (2002) states that the
students' thinking evolved from their natural thinking towards logical thinking,
which is associated with mathematical reasoning, accompanied by the construction
process, the rejection and the use of a method. In the theory of didactical situations
Brousseau was introduced in 1986, the learning obstacles are theoretical
foundations, because it is a means to acquire knowledge. Obstacles are part of the
knowledge of the students in general to solve certain problems, but when faced with
a new problem, the knowledge that has been held is not fully used and are difficult
to apply it into new material. In other words, the barriers are one way to find out
something (Brown, 2008). Cognitive obstacles helps to identify the difficulties faced
by the students in the learning process, and to determine the right strategy for
teaching (Cornu 2002: 158). Brousseau what is proposed in line with Piaget that
knowledge is constructed in the minds of children. Students begin the learning
process when they are in an environment full of difficulties and obstacles as occurs
in adults in general. The new knowledge that comes from the ability to adapt to new
situations and stimuli and new reactions to these conditions is evidence that learning
has occurred. Students know that the "problem had to face was deliberately chosen
to make learning and acquiring new knowledge, knowledge that is justified by the
logic of the situation" (Spagnolo in Manno, 2006). Cornu explained that planning for
teaching math concepts is very important to overcome obstacles that may occur.
Furthermore, according to artigue (1994), aims to model the situation didactic
teaching situations that can be developed with a controlled stages. Thus, in this
didactic situations students are involved in the process of thinking to solve a
problem in the learning process. This paper describes how the perspective of theory
didactical situation toward the learning obstacle in learning mathematic


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